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Primeur weekly 2019-10-07

Quantum computing

Argonne receives more than $1 million for quantum information science ...

Department of Energy announces $21,4 million for quantum information science research ...

Focus on Europe

SHAPE Tenth Call for Applications is open from 1 October 2019 until 1 December 2019 ...

Fifth Call for Expression of Interest for Human Brain Project's final phase opened ...

The new supercomputer in Ostrava is called Barbora ...

Middleware

Solid Sands introduces license-free service to ease compiler qualification ...

Cortical.io collaborates with Xilinx to bring natural language understanding supercomputing to enterprise applications ...

The search for quantum-resistant cryptography: Understanding the future landscape ...

Hardware

Rescale named #39 on Y Combinator’s 2019 list of top 101 companies ...

Mural for Perlmutter system unveiled ...

Supermicro expands European manufacturing facilities to support increased server and storage volume in EMEA markets ...

Applications

New research center for artificial intelligence at Mainz University ...

Modelling the complexity of the world's water ...

RUDN University mathematicians help improve efficiency of data centres using Markov chains ...

Heart from the computer helps physicians ...

Supercomputing and neutrons unite to unravel structures of intrinsically disordered protein ...

ORNL scientists shed light on microbial 'dark matter' with new approach ...

Gaute Hagen: Supercomputing the universe's building blocks ...

ORNL develops and deploys AI capabilities across research portfolio ...

SDSC and UC San Diego awarded two NSF Convergence Accelerator Grants ...

Eurolab4HPC subsidizes Short Term Collaborations and Business Prototyping Projects of a total of 55.000 euro ...

The Cloud

Excelero awarded patent for latency reduction in large-scale private Clouds ...

Heart from the computer helps physicians


Anatomic model of the left cardiac atrium of a 70-year-old patient. Black: existing ablation scars from a previous treatment. Gray: path identified by the algorithm, along which atrial flutter may develop. Colour-coded: clinically measured activation time of atrial flutter. Figure: Axel Loewe, KIT (spät = late; früh = early).
4 Oct 2019 Karlsruhe - Digital simulations of human organs can be used to study the development of diseases and to customize therapies for patients. At Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), researchers develop close-to-reality computer models of the heart on several levels, from the ion channel to cells and tissues to the complete organ. They simulate fundamental physiological and pathological processes, but also develop personalized models to assess the individual risk of cardiac arrhythmia, such as atrial flutter, and the effect of therapies, as is now reported in an expert journal.
Ion channel, medication, cell, and atrial flutter pathways (yellow) to the right cardiac atrium (brown). Figure: Axel Loewe, KIT.

So far, it has been impossible to reliably estimate the risk of a patient to suffer from atrial flutter. Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, the Medical Clinic IV of the Karlsruhe Municipal Hospital, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Freiburg, and the University Heart Center of Freiburg-Bad Krozingen have now developed a method to assess the individual risk of atrial flutter. As reported by the scientists inFrontiers in Physiology, personalized computer models enable identification of all pathways along which atypical circulating electric excitations may occur. "Our models consider anatomic, electrophysiological, and pharmacological criteria", stated Dr. Axel Loewe, Head of the Computational Cardiac Modeling Group of KIT's Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBT). In this way, the effect of therapies, such as catheter ablation or medication, can also be assessed in advance.

The work reveals the advantages of mathematically simulated organs for medicine: "Computer models offer a perfectly controllable environment for experiments", Dr. Axel Loewe stated. "Single modifications can be modelled and their effects on the complete system can be calculated." These models supplement classical methods, such as cell and animal experiments, and enable tests of new therapies without any risks for humans.

In his doctoral thesis, Loewe already modeled the causes of atrial flutter on the computer. The Computational Cardiac Modeling Group headed by Dr. Axel Loewe develops close-to-reality models of the heart on all levels, from the ion channel to cells and tissue, to the complete organ. In this way, they can model how an electric excitation develops, spreads to the cardiac atria and the entire heart, and stops in a healthy heart or is self-sustaining in case of cardiac arrhythmias.

Apart from modelling such fundamental physiological and pathological processes, the group also develops personalized models to individually determine the risk of diseases and the effect of treatments. To capture the patient's individual anatomy, such as the size and shape of the atria, the researchers use imaging methods, such as magnetic resonance imaging. To integrate the ECG-recorded electrical activity of the heart, the group closely cooperates with IBT's Bioelectric Signals Group that is headed by Professor Olaf Dössel. Work at the interface of engineering, computer science, natural sciences, and medicine paves the way towards customized therapies.

Atrial flutter is an abnormal heart rhythm, in which unusually fast electric excitation patterns cause the cardiac atria to contract quickly. Contrary to the more common atrial fibrillation, electric excitation in case of atrial flutter is coordinated. But as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter may cause the heart to beat too fast, breathing difficulty, and weakness. Moreover, the risk of a stroke is increased. A typical treatment of atrial fibrillation is ablation, i.e. catheter-supported obliteration of pathogenic electric excitation sources in the myocardial tissue. After the treatment, however, patients frequently develop so-called atypical atrial flutter, in the case of which a circulating excitation may occur both in the left and in the right atrium.

Axel Loewe, Emanuel Poremba, Tobias Oesterlein, Armin Luik, Claus Schmitt, Gunnar Seemann, and Olaf Dössel are the authors of the paper titled " Patient-Specific Identification of Atrial Flutter Vulnerability - A Computational Approach to Reveal Latent Reentry Pathways ". It has been published inFrontiers in Physiology, 2019 - DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01910

Source: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie - KIT

Back to Table of contents

Primeur weekly 2019-10-07

Quantum computing

Argonne receives more than $1 million for quantum information science ...

Department of Energy announces $21,4 million for quantum information science research ...

Focus on Europe

SHAPE Tenth Call for Applications is open from 1 October 2019 until 1 December 2019 ...

Fifth Call for Expression of Interest for Human Brain Project's final phase opened ...

The new supercomputer in Ostrava is called Barbora ...

Middleware

Solid Sands introduces license-free service to ease compiler qualification ...

Cortical.io collaborates with Xilinx to bring natural language understanding supercomputing to enterprise applications ...

The search for quantum-resistant cryptography: Understanding the future landscape ...

Hardware

Rescale named #39 on Y Combinator’s 2019 list of top 101 companies ...

Mural for Perlmutter system unveiled ...

Supermicro expands European manufacturing facilities to support increased server and storage volume in EMEA markets ...

Applications

New research center for artificial intelligence at Mainz University ...

Modelling the complexity of the world's water ...

RUDN University mathematicians help improve efficiency of data centres using Markov chains ...

Heart from the computer helps physicians ...

Supercomputing and neutrons unite to unravel structures of intrinsically disordered protein ...

ORNL scientists shed light on microbial 'dark matter' with new approach ...

Gaute Hagen: Supercomputing the universe's building blocks ...

ORNL develops and deploys AI capabilities across research portfolio ...

SDSC and UC San Diego awarded two NSF Convergence Accelerator Grants ...

Eurolab4HPC subsidizes Short Term Collaborations and Business Prototyping Projects of a total of 55.000 euro ...

The Cloud

Excelero awarded patent for latency reduction in large-scale private Clouds ...